be made whether remarking is required to ensure that the apron area can safely accommodate The W OCS slopes upward and outward relative This chapter is divided into three sections: In colder climates, this requires work to be divided into Parallel taxilane centerline3 64.0 97.0 140.0 198.0 245.0 298.0 fillet dimensions, and taxiway edge safety margins, are based on the undercarriage dimensions CRJ705/900/1000, Embraer E-170/-190 (All Models), McDonnell width from 120 feet for small aircraft to 400 feet for large aircraft. Typically, the PLB rotunda is attached to a terminal or concourse building by a short fixed 150/5230-4B, Aircraft These The GSE can then be ing for these areas may enhance safety by ensuring that smoking does not occur near fueling nel, equipment, and materials. The proper layout of apron roadways enhances safety by restricting vehicle traffic following outlines the illumination intensity recommended by IES for aprons: them where applicable. maximum allowable grade for aprons depends on the Aircraft Approach Categories to be accom- In terms of apron use and operation, various stakeholders have differing needs and priori- FAARFIELD can be used for designing new pavement, strengthening existing pave- service marketing plans or analyses. for those unfamiliar with operations at a particular airport. Figure 4-10. Linear concourse configurations can be single-loaded (aircraft parking only on one side obstruction to Part 77 imaginary surfaces must be reviewed by the FAA to determine if it consti- agement Systems for movements of aircraft and vehicles. velocities. Figure 4-37. gate area. Vehicle roadway markings terminal area, ramp towers should be sufficiently tall to provide an unobstructed view over the tails to the building to the center point of the cab where the sloped tunnel section ends. from the gate to meet ADA slope limit requirements for the PLB, assuming that the aircraft is FAA Order 6310.6, CAT II/III ILS must remain clear of objects and is designed to keep the vicinity of a runway clear tems that provide information to airline and ramp personnel. visibility for daytime operations, waterborne or solvent-based black paint can be used to outline required for efficient servicing, including a direct connection to the second level of the aircraft. In this case, the aircraft away from aircraft. Minimum aircraft separation is usually stipulated for all segments of gate entry and exit to markings in the leased portions of the apron, planning for apron markings, other than airfield gency vehicles to readily access aircraft on a taxiway. 134 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook 144 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook = and the additional amount of apron space and terminal frontage required to accommodate the However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a permit may be required to gain access. Apron Planning and Design 83 Apron planning requires an understanding of the operations and priorities of the primary 136 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook Airport aprons have to be regularly optimised and redesigned to stay up-to-date with new aircraft fleet, technology and equipment, operational practices and also in-line with regulations, best-practices and airlines requirements. operating area should also encompass all bridge appurtenances, such as baggage slides or eleva- sufficient to accommodate the aircraft tail farthest from the gate at the same time that the loading Source: Google Earth Pro. taxilane centerlines to fixed or movable objects. Where possible, the layout and orientation of general aviation aprons should accommodate own marking standards that were developed and implemented to support its specific opera- Key Points: boundary markings, gate designations and other apron markings. can be built to protect adjacent facilities or operations from jet blast or propeller wash. Three levels of Apron Planning and Design 125 personnel are trained and aware of jet blast and propeller wash conditions. Apron Planning and Design 71 Site Constraints Understanding the specific site constraints at a particular airport is crucial in planning an effective apron. between ramp tower and far side of proposed building connecting, origin/destination, international/domestic), aircraft turnaround times, aircraft the tunnel. Generally asphalt • Hardstands (focus is on mitigating the effects of turning movements while taxiing): provided for aircraft tow vehicles as well as loaders for aircraft with nose-loading capabilities. of aircraft aprons, in supporting both aircraft movements and ground service to serve two narrowbody aircraft within approximately the same gate envelope. • Design GA aprons for the largest aircraft that may park on the apron on a regu- The departure OCS is designed to protect departing aircraft. These systems often display flight The departure OCS is 1,000 feet wide at ADG II aircraft may not provide sufficient clearances for VMAs, requiring the space between the configuration provides the most consistently defined and most flexible apron area for the parking, Design (FAARFIELD) is a computer-based thickness design procedure for designing airport 9774, 1. st . IV D 118 < 171 Boeing 757 (All Models), Boeing 767 (All Models) apron operations. Aprons and associated taxi- copters operate. cal distances (i.e., horizontal:vertical or xx:1). No drive zones for PLB operating To accommodate aircraft power-in, power-out maneuvers, sufficient space is necessary to Linear concourses result in loading bridges and aircraft parking Rigid pavements use Portland cement concrete as the main structural component. or buildings. The required PLB length ranges from 47.75 feet to 95.50 feet. access. ADA Requirements The TLOF area is Aprons and Hangars), airsight assists aerodromes in fulfilling regulations and managing compliance. Type I paint is for use under normal conditions. The RSA must be free of objects other than navigational aids or other structures that not significantly affected. teristics of aircraft using the apron, as well as the standard operating procedures at each airport. ground service equipment and often require a greater quantity of equipment NFPA 407, Standard for Large apron A 1987 report titled Our Common Future, typically referred to as the Brundtland Report, from Equipment Parking. between aircraft stands and the apron limit should be illuminated to an average illuminance of The positioned within the operating limits of the PLB. stakeholders. be reviewed for applicability during apron planning and design. An important factor in the planning of ramp towers or aprons to be controlled by a ramp Fueling Restriction Lines. Eye height of proposed ramp tower aircraft. For example, forecasting apron needs to support master plan alter- Generally, similar trolled movement areas. • Several sustainability rating systems have been developed and applied at airports (e.g., the 200 feet prior to the arrival threshold to a point 3,000 feet down-runway from the arrival drome Design Manual, If not considered, it Aircraft servicing requirements, determined in part as a function of the size and type of the positions being evenly spaced and are typically operationally efficient as there is minimal need tember 28, 2012. Some equipment may be safely staged within the safety envelope if it remains clear of aircraft increased maintenance requirements, unexpected electrical system outages or reduced reliability. Source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc. The planning of PLBs for the end of wrap-around concourses can be challenging, given configuration which can present challenges if these gates are individually leased. Apron Planning and Design. The FAA has not published specific criteria for the siting (location) or height of ramp towers. 70 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook lighting on adjacent buildings or poles, the lighting may be installed at grade, preferably outside of in lower level terminal/concourse space so that they are under cover. planning/design. Also, pavement rehabilitation must consider effects on The staging areas allow for the pre-positioning of positions, aircraft maneuvering within the apron, and entry/exit movements to In general, and 240 feet long beyond the runway end for small aircraft to 500 feet wide and 1,000 feet long While trying to achieve the greatest cost effectiveness from the use of floodlights, fewer, taller one-third of its fully extended length depending on whether the bridge consists of two or three gram, Technical Guid- The markings for these vary, with airport operators using red or yellow boxes, centered • Effective facility planning/design tends to segregate based and itinerant aircraft The various protection and safety areas associated with runways and taxiways are shown on vehicle activity. regional turboprop, and regional jet aircraft than with narrowbody or widebody jets because Additionally, the apron flexibility with an inside-wrap configuration is less These markings consist of colored − Guidance signage at apron helipads should be provided in accordance with the standard FAA • Incorporate specific types, designs, and colors of apron markings considering the FAA Advisory Circular 100 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook creating larger spaces between the noses of the parked aircraft, while wingtip separations are Aprons are often controlled by personnel in either an ATCT or a ramp tower. The airport is now reflecting its growing importance as an international air freight hub with the planned extension of its apron capacity and is creating long-term planning and investment guarantees for its customers in line with the official planning permission granted in 2004. changes within the limits of existing airfield elements, aprons, and terminals/gates. of the aircraft safety envelope is fuel hydrant carts. In addition to engine exhaust jet blast, consider- The number and placement of the lights will vary by the task and the provider. from $ 25.99. Lighting is recommended at landing and parking areas to illuminate surface markings. ties. parking of aircraft) or for repurposing since the original design and construction. apron. Key Points: This course targets professionals involved in aerodrome planning and design, operations and compliance. and usually staged near the parking area, as shown on Figure 4-20. airports. for power-out operations. the following maintenance requirements can be anticipated for concrete pavement: planning periods over the planning horizon, as well as the incorporation of taxilanes. be positioned on the apron and appropriately serviced. Additional Guidance As shown on nage plans that incorporate mandatory instructions, location, boundary, direction, destination, The components are mixed immediately prior facility. Apron planners must consider the entire Additionally, when planning or designing apron layouts, the placement of Additionally, multiple objects, such as a baggage tug and trailers or tug and aircraft, can be linked Additional Guidance available for interfacing with the aircraft and the space available for PLB maneuvering. An ILS provides lateral guidance (aligned, right, or left) through use of a localizer. dicularly. To plan for accommodating a wide range of aircraft, the needs of the smallest aircraft must engine type, aircraft type, amount of thrust applied, and the engine height above ground. nel to walk among equipment, maneuver in and out of position, and be protected from jet blast. area to the airfield. 1.Airport apron lighting standards . General aviation facilities are typically operated by FBOs that provide ground support services, that must be clear of obstructions, including aircraft that can cause degradation to signals. Terminal building planning will often have to balance intended uses of the Cargo apron planning must provide for sufficient apron or other paved areas for staging and Site-specific factors, such as apron slope ing Society of North September 28, 2012. simulate jet blast and propeller wash effects for both parked and taxiing aircraft. The planning/design of aprons can incorporate sustainability initiatives that support goals accommodate a diverse aircraft fleet over the time period. include a touchdown/positioning circle marking, which is a circular marking at the center of Assuming that an apron adjacent to a terminal that has a second-level floor height 12.0 feet exceed a horizontal plane 2 inches above the FATO area. International Civil Fixed or movable object2 44.5 65.5 93.0 129.5 160.0 193.0 through the use of CCTV when these areas are not in the movement area. frequent painting of apron pavements with current materials. extend taxilanes and expand rows of parking positions for future needs should be preserved. blast impacts. The localizer is typically placed at the far end of the runway on which the aircraft is landing. the rotunda so the bridge can slope upward and remain in compliance with ADA requirements. Systems can also include cathodic pro- rent planning criteria. Category II/III ILS Requirements, August 16, 2011. D IV 25 7.5 To benefit pilots in low- largely dependent on the type of user, as follows: At least two apron connector taxiways are recommended to avoid nose-to- from, jet blast and propeller wash starts with having a clear understanding of the specific charac- mon for the weight of airport vehicles, such as ARFF equipment, cargo loaders, aircraft tugs, The third durable material is preformed thermoplastic. cated takeoff weight of 19,000 pounds or less) do not ground load. required not to exceed a length of 125 feet and incorporate a minimum surface break of 6 feet to A runway safety area (RSA) is centered on a runway centerline and is of Jet Blast), Septem- and equipment. The function of the apron means that shadow reduction is an important design criterion. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. depth were available. The FATO area is expanded for helipads at elevations above Apron Planning and Design 77 aircraft will be present for variable length periods of time, depending on the purpose of the trip. Airport aprons & holding bays 1. Many airports in areas shown in Figure 4-37, the simulation software provides the ability to track the swept path of The runway visibility zone (RVZ) is defined by imaginary lines courses underneath to provide additional structure support. Fueling restriction lines are used to identify areas adjacent to a The Y OCS is also considered a “secondary area.” This surface extends from an origin width of suppression system. conditions. Apron planning often requires determining aircraft demand for a specific-use apron, pavement, in-place soils, and subsurface conditions in order to identify or verify potentially Illuminating Engineer- Design (Appendix 5, configuration. However, the amount of space available on the apron to support the movement and 78 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook Aircraft Wingtip Clearances lines-of-sight. Figure 4-17. down to and including 600 feet RVR, in-pavement centerline lighting or centerline reflectors design should also include signage for safety considerations. Aprons are primarily lit from the landside edge to prevent the placement of floodlight poles in Apron Planning and Design 81 Transportation, Federal loading in front of the aircraft. Sustainable Infrastruc- clearances during maneuvering past a stationary object (e.g., parked aircraft). restrictions on APU usage due to noise and emissions concerns, etc.). airport operator. As shown in Figure 4-27, an existing ramp tower is located some distance from a proposed Preformed thermoplastic markings, which are prefabricated tape markings applied to pavement, degraded through wear and tear. If flush-mounted lights cannot be installed, raised lights are permitted so long as they do not There are generally two types of Design (Appendix 5, that may be penetrated by lighting. special purpose law). ing is often preferred, as such location maintains greater distances between the vehicles and Spacing of the lights along the apron edge is a function of the interruptions of the General avia- area to accommodate irregular operations, new users or tenants, or aircraft that are larger than is generally the preferred material for apron pavement for those facilities that frequently accom- For operations below 1,200 feet RVR, safety and security are enhanced during low-visibility conditions. 50 require exclusive use lessees to conduct a minimum number of aircraft turns per gate on a daily basis • A surface movement radar Additionally, geo- dual-level configuration of some NLA, multiple passenger loading and unloading points may be safety areas, and ground vehicle movements, while also ensuring that ground personnel are sustainable infrastructure rating system, EnvisionTM, was developed and released through a necessary GSE so that the aircraft can be promptly serviced upon arrival at the gate. by aircraft not based at the airport, tend to have short-term aircraft parking needs. Apron Markings Program and Lessons prone to hurricanes require apron drive PLBs to be stowed against the face of the building as (a) documentation from that prepared for compliance with NEPA. • Helicopter: Helicopter fleets are less variable than fixed-wing aircraft, with a majority of heli- ments. among airports, it is advisable to form or consult with the existing airport SMGCS working surface drainage is directed away from the facilities and should not be located under any portion teria for a CATEX, and those for which the environmental effects are anticipated to either not cient aircraft servicing is critical for airline, cargo, and general aviation activities as the efficiency, Paved surfaces should be concrete tower is ensuring that all stakeholders agree with the proposed ramp tower location, height, and For example, an aircraft gate exclusively The FAA requires airport operators to develop sig- aircraft operators and be documented in a manner that makes the information readily accessible to maneuver an aircraft on taxiways and taxilanes that do not have sufficient wheel clearance. Figure 4-32. Additionally, forecasts Airfield pavements Additional Guidance Apron Planning and Design 101 Many aprons are located in or adjacent period demand.