Various ancient synopses and commentaries are of great help in establishing the order and number of the individual Aetia, though these too are fragmentary. This, his Pinakes, 120 volumes long, … Show Summary Details Quick Reference. Callimachus's rendition of this tale, while using a traditional basis, turned convention on its head by effectively putting Hecale rather than Theseus in the spotlight. The exact relationship of Against the Telchines to what follows has never been satisfactorily resolved. (4) Because the poem was so often imitated in antiquity, especially its opening, allusions to or translations of lines or parts of lines are also useful in establishing a text. (3) The writing of aitia seems to have absorbed the imaginations of the Hellenistic poets. Their union put an end to the fighting. 35-40 also alludes to Simonides and the Scopadae in the context of honoring poets. The meaning would be “guide” or “steer”. frag. The answer recounts Minos in the act of sacrificing to the Graces learning about the death of his son Androgeos. It is worth considering to what degree Callimachus’ poem succeeded in opening up elegy to permit a greater range of topics than had been attempted previously. It is supported by Posidippus’ autobiographical elegy (118.17 A-B: βιβλίον ἑλίσσων), where he is unrolling a papyrus in performance. (4) An elegy on the fountains of Argos, which were said to have been discovered by the Danaids, who provided irrigation for the once arid land. – 245 b.c.) FREE Shipping. Within this rapidly expanding civic environment, the Greek community was a diverse mix. Callimachus uses a phrase here: (fr. Papyrus finds show that it was widely read until late antiquity and perhaps well into the Byzantine period. The following discrete narratives can be located in Book I: (1) Callimachus begins by asking the Muses for an explanation of a Parian custom of sacrificing to the Graces without garlands or flutes. The poem recounts how Berenice II dedicated a lock of her hair in the temple of Arsinoe Aphrodite at Cape Zephyrium upon the safe return of her husband, Ptolemy III, from the Third Syrian War. (2) The London Scholia (P. Lit. Each text represents some combination of the following: (1) Before the discovery of papyri, the Aitia was known only by a handful of book fragments: these could be lines quoted in other ancient authors like Athenaeus or Strabo, or in sources like the scholia to Homer or Pindar, or in ancient lexica like the Etymologicum magnum, Etymologicum Genuinum, or the Suda. Although broken in many places it provides valuable information about the order and contents of Aitia III-IV. [xxvi] One of the best preserved fragments, the ostensible purpose of this aition is to explain the peculiar marriage ritual of having the bride sleep her prenuptial night with a freeborn youth both of whose parents were still alive. Another organizing strategy that Callimachus used to great effect was parallel tales (e.g., the aition of Phrygius and Pieria; in Book III is a love story that seems to resemble the earlier tale of Acontius and Cydippe; the two separate stories about statues of Hera in book IV). The accounts of the Muses, frequently interlaced with Callimachus' own observations, make up the aitia of the first two books. [xviii] This fragment contains a description of a symposium held at the house of an Athenian named Pollis, who was a resident in Egypt (presumably Alexandria), but who nevertheless celebrated Attic festivals. 75.76- 77: ev0Ev 6.7a[t].64 / p0oS tES epETLpqv pe6papE KaXXt6rqv. From two warring cities, like Acontius and Cydippe, they meet and fall in love at a festival. Since papyrus rolls of poetic texts were normally about 1000 lines in length, the original Aetia must have circulated in four or, less likely, two papyrus rolls. Further, several themes can be detected over the various aitia: the treatment of guests, particularly in the tales connected to Heracles, piety (or impiety) towards the gods often ironically resolved, the series of love stories in Book III, and stories in Book IV that involve treachery and violence. (9) A love story about Phrygius and Pieria. In fact, Apollonius' poem ends where Callimachus begins. Apollonius, Lycophron, Callimachus, and other Hellenistic poets found ample fodder for their aetiologizing tastes in the historians’ mytho-historical material. Studies of epyllion have largely been limited to texts in dactylic hexameter. After this happened for the third time, Ceyx consulted the oracle of Apollo and was advised to marry his daughter to Acontius instead. [xii] For example, Vergil, Ecologues 6.3-5 or Propertius 3.1-24. This is printed in Harder 2012: 2. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. (10) This is a story about dishonoring a statue of the Olympic victor, Euthycles the Locrian, and the consequences of the action. The following is a list of the most important commentaries and epitomes. Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo A.W. Since Books III-IV are framed by poems to Berenice II, Ptolemy III's bride, it may not be fanciful to see a deliberate concentration of erotic themes in these latter books, culminating with the erotically charged dedication of the lock of hair for her husband's safe return from battle. The newness of the city dictated that everyone was an immigrant; therefore, who came, where they came from, and the fact of migration itself constituted an essential dimension of poetic composition as well as reception. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. When the girl’s parents collected her the next day she was no longer a virgin. 43 Pf. Linus was later torn apart by dogs. Each is dependent on a different set of arguments: the first (ἑλ[ίσσω) means “roll out” or “roll around” and was originally proposed with ἔπος δ’ ἐπὶ τυτθὸν to mean “roll out my writing (ἔπος) in a small compass”, i.e., write a short poem, where the image of rolling would allude to a papyrus roll as the material of composition. In the main the order of aitia in books III and IV is known from the Diegeseis, though there are a number missing at the beginning of the Diegeseis. Whether these statements were serious and systematic, or playful, and whether his enemies were real, or fictional foils to dramatize his own aesthetics, he was unique in his expression of what constituted excellence in contemporary poetics. Annette HARDER, Callimachus : Aetia. The tendency of modern editors is to be conservative—not to restore unless the lines of restoration are clear—though caution does not guarantee that every supplement is correct. A version of the story occurs in the Argonautica 1.953-60. kings or . Callimachus, in the story of Acontius and Cydippe in his Aetia, juxtaposes the reference to the continuity of Acontius’ line with the eventful history of Acontius’ island of Chios, thus raising the question how stable the aetion can actually be. Scholia (commentary) and Diegeseis (explanatory narratives) by ancient commentators, with English translation, Greek text, English translation, and hand-made vocabulary lists giving all uncommon words in full dictionary form; explanatory notes by Prof. Susan Stephens. It was an influential poem. introduction callimachus aetia dickinson college. (4) The fourth aition included a discussion of Heracles' killing of Theiodamas, who refused him a bull to feed his hungry son. A roll of more than a hundred epigrams of the latter, datable to the late third century bce, was published in 2001. was invoked in childbirth in Book III. When Ino, driven mad by Hera, jumped into the sea with her son, Melicertes, his body was washed up on the shores of Tenedos, where an altar was placed in his honor. Harder has suggested that fr. But I shall go on to the prose (?) Example 8. ISBN 978-0-19-958101-6. But he lived and wrote much of his poetry in Alexandria, a city that had been founded within a generation of his birth. It included information on the sources that Callimachus used for his individual narratives. 16 x 24 cm, IX-362 et 1061 p. Prix : 225 £. Each of these provided an explanatory account (aition) of an unusual ritual event or object, e.g., why the Lindians use invective in their sacrificial rites to Heracles or why the statue of Leucadian Diana has a mortar on her head in place of a crown. 114 Pf. The most important of these writers were Asclepiades of Samos and Posidippus of Pella. Facilitated by this new environment, Callimachus appropriated the literary past and positioned himself between poetry as performance in traditional venues and the new possibilities afforded by the text. 181 = Mertens-Pack3 197) contains a commentary on the opening of the poem and covers frr. Callimachus' Aetia, written in Alexandria in the third century BC, was an important and influential poem which inspired many later Greek and Latin poets. According to the Florentine scholia this aition included a discussion of the various traditions concerning the birth of the Graces. [xxviii] Line 90 of the papyrus closes the Aitia with the title: Καλλιμάχου [Αἰτί]ων Δ. Lond. If the epigram is rightly placed at the end of book IV, he signs off by claiming that he is moving to new genres (see below). (6) The next aition continues with an account of nuptial rites of the Eleans. The Aitia itself has not been transmitted to us intact. In 1997 W. Luppe reread the scholium as αἱ γ’ ἁπαλ(αί), and this has been accepted by Harder, though earlier editors will have printed αἱ κατὰ λεπτόν. (3) A story about the pledge to Apollo by the Liparians to sacrifice their most courageous warrior after the battle. The Aitia has not survived intact but as fragments of papyrus and parchment. They are identified in various ways: (a) the content may be obvious from content or marginal comments, as with the Victoria Berenices; (b) the content may be known from other sources, as with Acontius and Cydippe, or (c) book fragments sometimes coincide with a line or more of a papyrus find, and thus guarantee the assignment to poet and text as with example 2 above. 1, pp. D’Alessio prints the supplement, though most editors do not. So reediting may have meant nothing more than issuing two more book rolls. ), it is plausible that there were at least 18 aitia in the first two books, spoken by each of the Muses in sequence. Subsequently the court astronomer, Conon, announced that the lock had disappeared from the temple and had taken its place in the heavens as a new constellation. It may have been parallel to the opening of book III, with its aition of the Nemean games, but almost nothing survives. A map of all locations mentioned in the Aetia. The most important of the papyrus or parchment finds are in roughly chronological order: (1) The Lille papyrus (= Mertens-Pack3 207.3) was copied within a generation of Callimachus' death. His poems contain explicit statements on poetic aesthetics, often constructed as responses to his ‘critics’. Even though the 1992 publication of a fragmentary elegy on the Battle of Platea (P. Oxy. (1) The Florentine scholia or Scholia Florentina (PSI 1219 = Mertens-Pack3 196) is the name given to a second-third century CE papyrus roll containing scholia for book I. Berenice II was the daughter of Magas of Cyrene, and married Euergetes in 246 after a long betrothal. It would have been relocated by copiests or editors at the end of the four books at a later date. In aetiology the past operates both to provide a valorized context for this redefinition, and also as the space into which to retroject such elements in order to control or imagine a place as really one’s own. This Callimachus travels the Mediterranean, pays homage to Athena and Zeus, develops erotic fixations, practices funerary commemoration, and brings fresh gifts for the cult of Artemis. He was credited with more than 800 books, but, apart from six hymns and some 60 epigrams, only fragments survive. 1. Although broken in many places it provides valuable information about the order and contents of Aetia III–IV. This earlier city had some sort of walls (the first mention of which is in Callimachus’ first Iambus), palace environs, and the Museion and the Library. Callimachus was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya. In telling the story, however, Callimachus appears to have shifted the focus from the heroic to the details of Heracles' encounter with a peasant named Molorchus with whom he took shelter, and much of the poem is his conversation with Molorchus. Callimachus was born in Cyrene in c.310, and moved to Alexandria, where he lived at the court of the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a great patron of the arts, and, later, queen Berenice II, wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes. [vii] It was an elegiac poem consisting of narratives, ranging in length from no more than a few lines (e.g., Busiris) to well over a hundred (e.g., the Victory of Berenice, Acontius and Cydippe, the Lock of Berenice). Farewell and return with greater prosperity. callimachus hardcover susan a stephens oxford. [iv] Harder 2001: 217-223 and Stephens 2011. Further, it is open to question whether this section was really an independent prologue that was appended to the whole when the third and fourth books were added (so Pfeiffer, Parsons) or whether it was simply the first part of the following section (Cameron).[xiii]. After Heracles destroyed Elis, he forced the widows of the Elean soldiers to sleep with his own men to repopulate the region. He begins book I as an old man, apparently recounting his youthful encounter with the Muses in a dream; if book II opens with fr. as the close of Book II.[xxii]. Summary: In this paper the author discusses and explains the text of several Callimachus' Fragments. (3) The discovery of the Diegeseis, a papyrus roll containing incipits and brief paraphrases of the contents of each individual aition, have been of enormous advantage in establishing the order of text, especially for the very lacunose book IV. This is the earliest mention of Rome in a Greek text. If so, it might be intended to foreshadow the Lock of Berenice, in which the political tensions between Cyrene and Egypt were resolved by the marriage of Berenice II (of Cyrene) and Ptolemy III. 253 SH = 137m Harder, which contains language reminiscent of the opening of Book I and mentions something ceasing (either a dream or the voices of the Muses) should be located at the close of book II. The stories include one on Camarina; another on the death of Minos, killed by the daughters of Cocalus; Zankle, named for the sickle used by Kronos to castrate Uranos; and Boeotian Haliartus. Harder accepts the restoration but takes the sense to be “turn over in one’s mind.” The second (ἐλ[αύνω) was Friedlander’s conjecture and seems to be supported by by AP 14.121.11, where Metrodorus is clearly imitating the Aitia prologue. The second line of the prologue: νήιδες οἳ Μούσης οὐκ ἐγένετο φίλοι has been quoted in several ancient sources including Choeroboscus, Hephaestion, and Dionysius Thrax. Since papyrus rolls of poetic texts were normally about 1000 lines in length, the original Aitia must have circulated in four or, less likely, two papyrus rolls. Books III and IV must fall early in the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes, because the first poem of Book III commemorates the victory of Berenice II in the four-horse chariot race at the Nemean games (either in 245, 243, or 241 BCE). 2168 + P. Berol. This chapter argues for an elaborate thematic network in the second, four-book version of Callimachus' Aetia.It considers the relation of the constituent sections to the poem and each other, and the nature of the change between the two-book and the four-book version. Their epigrams, often imitating earlier stone inscriptions, were beginning to be collected into poetry books. Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 310 BC – c. 240 BC) was a Greek poet, critic and bibliographer, of Libyan birth. The following aition is a doublet. Like the opening of the Victoria Berenices it links Argos and Egypt. (7) This is another story about an athletic victor: Euthymus, the Olympic boxing champion, who put an end to a custom of the Temessans. CALLIMACHUS OF CYRENE was a Greek poet and scholar of the Library of Alexandria who flourished in the C3rd B.C. 1-25 Pf. While this is the principle upon which much scholarship has proceeded, it is important to realize that before the second century CE, all literary works would have been circulated in a roll format—usually papyrus, though sometimes leather or parchment. (14) A story about a Roman named Gaius, who when wounded in a battle and complaining of his limp, was admonished by his mother to behave with greater fortitude. He was a champion of the short, polished poem as opposed to long epics, and the start of his "Aetia", translated here, is his reply to those who preferred lengthy poems. 238 SH); and Muses as a group occur in fr. The justification for the restoriation is that Apollo is speaking at the end of line 28: ἐλάσεις, but Callimachus is clearly speaking in line 29: ἀείδομεν. Links to resources for finding sight reading passages of moderate difficulty, most with glosses. Euthymus is said to have put an end to the practice. Callimachus (ca. 178 Pf., discussed in connection with book II above. As new papyrus finds from this poem are published, they are inventoried on the following websites: the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), Trismegistus (http://www.trismegistos.org/ldab/) and Mertens-Pack3 (http://promethee.philo.ulg.ac.be/cedopal/). The dating of Books I and II is not secure. Aetia (‘Origins’), in four books: a miscellany of elegiac pieces. 11629A+B + 13417A+B (= Mertens-Pack3 195) are fragments from a third century CE papyrus codex containing portions of Aetia, Books I, III, lyrics, and the Hecale. If the epigram is rightly placed at the end of Book IV, he signs off by claiming that he is moving to new genres (see below). It included information on the sources that Callimachus' used for his individual narratives. to this poem, arguing that Molorchus's slaying of the mice who were eating him out of house and home was a tale within the larger aition and functioned as a humorous parallel to Heracles’ slaying of the Nemean lion. Various ancient synopses and commentaries are of great help in establishing the order and number of the individual aitia, though these too are fragmentary. Translated by Mair, A. W. & G. R. Loeb Classical Library Volume 129. The missing phrase, which cannot contain more than 7-8 letters and must fit the metrical shape: ‒ ⏑ ⏑ ‒ or ‒ ‒ ‒, has to be a transition that indicates Callimachus’ assent to Apollo’s advice. evokes the metaphor of line 24, where the Muse is Callimachus' own poetic composition; cf. Probably both of these poems were separately written and included in the Aitia at a later stage of publication. (See Stephens 2011: 199-206.). Papyrus finds show that it was widely read until late antiquity and perhaps well into the Byzantine period. The subject is Oesydres. (4) P. Oxy 20.2263 (= Mertens-Pack3 205) is a second-third century BCE roll that contains Diegeseis to Book I. (15) A story about the anchor stone of the Argo left at Cyzicus and subsequently dedicated to Athene. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. But when the grammatical contours are not clear, then any restoration is untrustworthy and modern editors tend not to print. 178, then a seemingly younger Callimachus is again present, this time in Alexandria, at a symposium; at the opening of Book III, he speaks the poetic praise of Berenice. Although Callimachus himself was never head of the Library, his composition of the Pinakes and the breadth of his poetic and prose intertexts testifies to his active engagement with this new (textual) mode of thinking. The older was aniconic, not even carved into human form, while the other had a vine in her hair and a lion skin, said to be spoils from Dionysus and Heracles. [xxviii] The last five lines of the Aitia repeat the opening: “. He flourished under Ptolemy 1 II (285–246bc) and continued into the reign of Ptolemy III. Callimachus Fragment 1 At the beginning of the Aetia Callimachus attacks his literaiy enemies, whom he calls the Telchines. Dickinson College CommentariesDepartment of Classical StudiesDickinson CollegeCarlisle, PA 17013 USAdickinsoncommentaries@gmail.com(717) 245-1493, http://promethee.philo.ulg.ac.be/cedopal/, http://chs.harvard.edu/CHS/article/display/1341. Et ce travail … 178 Pf. 280 b.c. Callimachus Sexy Athena The Hymn To Athena And The. While this is the principle upon which much scholarship has proceeded, it is important to realize that before the second century CE, all literary works would have been circulated in a roll format—usually papyrus, though sometimes leather or parchment. ), in which Clio is mentioned in this fragment as 'speaking again'. After the Parians killed him they were required to pay reparations to the Thasians. (3) P Oxy 17.2079 + 18.2167 + PSI 11.1217 (= Mertens-Pack3 195) are all fragments from the same second century CE papyrus roll containing the opening of book I, frr. (6) Not much more than the subject is known about this aition, which recounted the building of the Pelasgian walls at Athens. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Callimachus: The Hymns. (3) a sacrifice to Heracles at Lindos. 2.50 with this explanation: ὡς πολλάκις Τελχῖνες, clearly echoing the first line of Callimachus’ poem. Mair, Ed. A map of all locations mentioned in the text and notes of the Aetia. Example 3. line 11 of the prologue Against the Telchines was restored by Pfeiffer as ending: αἱ κ[ατὰ λεπτόν, and this reading stood for a generation. It was an elegiac poem consisting of narratives, ranging in length from no more than a few lines (e.g., The dating of books I and II is not secure. (5) Berlin Commentary (P. Berol. Scholars depend on Callimachus’ metrical tendencies with respect to elegiac couplets and his linguistic preferences in this process. They often involve treachury and betrayal, scapegoating, and ironic denouements. This ‘new’ aesthetic (which might seem less novel if we had the poetry of the 4th cent.) Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams. Introduction - Callimachus Aetia. Either a verb beginning with ελ[ or beginning with λ[ + a temporal augment may be restored. Although a considerable portion of the Greek text has survived, the poem is partially reconstructed on the basis of Catullus 66, which is translation of the Lock into Latin. 1, 7, 17, 18, 115, 117. Oxford, University Press, 2012. Even though the 1992 publication of a fragmentary elegy on the Battle of Platea P. Oxy. (4) P. Oxy. Aetia Aetia: Book I l (Against the Telchines) (I know that) the Telchines, a who are ignorant and no friends of the Muse, grumble at my poetry, because I did not accomplish one continuous poem of many thousands of lines on . (6) This is an account of a statue of Artemis at Leucas and why she had a mortar on her head in place of a crown. The Lighthouse was built between 297-85. His insistence on his own poetics as ‘new’ in combination with his compositions in multiple genres led to frequent imitation among later poets of both Greece and Rome. 242-46 as fr. There are two Loeb Library editions of Callimachus: Callimachus and Lycophron, translated by A. W. Mair (1921), and Aetia, Iambic, Lyric Poems, Hecale, Minor Epic and Elegiac Poems, translated with notes by C. A. Trypanis (1958). But is the poet's old age a genuine biographical detail or merely a poetic persona constructed to contrast with the youthful Callimachus of the following section? could begin Book II. It is important to also to consider that the Aitia begins with the enmity of Athens and Crete, and Acontius and Cydippe are respectively the descendents of Codrus (of Athens) and Minos (of Crete). (For recent discussions see Barchiesi 2011 and Acosta-Hughes and Stephens 2012: 204-269.) Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Links to the gazeteer Pleiades for all ancient places mentioned in the text and notes. Afterwards he founded the Olympian games. 2.5 Pf., where it means “poems”.