There are thought to be over 10,000 species of seaweed, reflecting its immense diversity, both in flavour and nutritional properties. While blue-green species are called algae, they are actually bacteria. The major utilisation of these plants as food is in Asia, particularly Japan, Korea and China, where seaweed cultivation has become a major industry. The wet seaweed is passed through hammer mills with progressively smaller screens to reduce it to fine particles. Red algae serves as a natural fabric dye in many places. A traditional tribal dessert was also made with Porphyra by beating the seaweed in water into a frothy, white mixture to be eaten with fresh berries. Some are used as fertilizers or as sources of polysaccharides . But, this is far less than Japan uses for certain seaweeds, particularly those used for industrial processing of specialty seaweed products. Required fields are marked *. Patients taking warfarin and consuming a large quantity of food containing seaweed may experience a change in international normalized ratio because of seaweed's high vitamin K content. Net-Zero: The Final Solution for Non-Essentials, Plant-Based and Green-Pilled: Diet in “The Great Reset”, Terminator 2030: Rise of the Essential Twerkers, Seaweed in Traditional Diets (What Types & How to Use It). Traditional Chinese medicine used hot water extracts of several types of seaweed in the treatment of cancer. Because of the high nutrient content, seaweed has been used as food throughout Asia. Porphyra (Nori) is used in China as an antiascorbic (Chen, 1973) in link to its content in vitamin C.Today in Asia, Ecklonia kurome still has the reputation to facilitate the restoring of lying-in women (Park and Peterson, 1991; Tseng and Chang, 1984). Dozens of new seaweed baths have been built in the past decade in response to both renewed interest in the healthy effects of seaweed bathing, and the entry of the Irish Republic into the European Union and a great influx of European immigrants and tourists. Today, Japan is the leading importer of seaweed, while Korea is the premier exporter-with Japan as its main customer. Māori traditionally used a few species of red and green seaweed as food, and bull kelp or rimurapa, with its inflatable blades, for storage. Primal Edge Health recommended reading list, A Jamaican Irish Moss Cocktail is a popular drink in the. In South, it is usually stir-fried and steamed. 1 1 1 Aboriginal uses of seaweeds in temperate Australia : an archival assessment 2 Ruth H. Thurstan1,2, Zoё Brittain3, David S. Jones4, Elizabeth Cameron5, Jennifer Dearnaley4, 3 Alecia Bellgrove1* 4 1 Deakin University, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Integrative 5 Ecology, Warrnambool Campus, PO Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280, Australia. Is seaweed a good source of fiber? Your email address will not be published. Description and reproduction. In 19th century Ireland, seaweed was gathered and dried for use in flans, tonic and beer, and was even thought to have medicinal properties. AIMS OF THE REVIEW: To assess the scientific evidence for therapeutic claims made for Sargassum spp. Cite. I have been buying organic herbs, spices, and teas from them for more than a decade and have always been impressed with their commitment to environmental stewardship and high standards of quality. Traditional Medicine Use of Laver. During the Greek and Roman empire – seaweeds growing in the Mediterranean Sea were routinely used as medicine. Nori is … In South, it is usually stir-fried and steamed. Drain the seaweed and remove any excess water by squeezing it. While not all seaweed is edible, those that are have a surprising diversity to them. In fact, as early as 100 BC, records indicate that ancient Greeks used a species of red algae to treat infections from parasitic worms. Some tougher seaweed like kombu might be best sliced thin or boiled before eating. "If you have miso soup with seaweed in it, that's a traditional way to use it." For centuries, seaweed has inspired botanical, industrial, and pharmaceutical interest. Seaweed uses and utilization Seaweeds are used in many maritime countries as a source of food, for industrial applications and as a fertiliser. People use the whole plant to make medicine. BIOBASED SEAWEED PRODUCTS 22 Anaerobic digestion and extraction of valuable coproducts 22 Nutritional value of energy coproducts 25 Irish Seaweeds Ltd. Sea vegetables are full of nutrients. A family business producing seaweed as supplements, cooking, gardening and bath products. Site maintained by M.D. Hedge Mustard & Laver Seaweed Rice Soup; Nutritional Profile Australia is a global hotspot for seaweed biodiversity with a rich, diverse Indigenous history dating back 65,000 years, including an extensive traditional knowledge of Australian natural resources. However, seaweed has been part … The Japanese first cultivated this plant in the late 17th century in the brackish water of Tokyo Bay. Seaweeds have a high concentration of essential vitamins, trace elements, proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, enzymes, and minerals as compared to terrestrial foodstuffs. While it is hard to get precise numbers on the nutritional content of each type of seaweed, one can safely assume there are numerous minerals available. Excessive intake of dried seaweed may result in increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. The Celts noted that ordinary seaweed contracted as it dried and then expanded with moisture. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Seaweed uses and utilization Seaweeds are used in many maritime countries as a source of food, for industrial applications and as a fertiliser. Farmers have used seaweed for hundreds of years as mulch for soil, and even today there is a large seaweed industry in both Scotland and Ireland. Many of these First Nations across Vancouver Island, though much of the traditional use was practiced by mid-coast and northern groups, use the seaweed as a food source. Soak the wakame in water to hydrate. Select one or more newsletters to continue. 1.4 Sources of seaweed 1.4.1 Brown seaweeds. C. Vonthron-Sénécheau, in Seaweed in Health and Disease Prevention, 2016. They are used in several ways for example, in preparation of jellies, ice cream, and other desserts. The fried laver seaweeds are consumed as a snack with beer. While seaweed has long been a staple of many Asian diets—particularly in Japanese cuisine—it’s showing up on more U.S. restaurant menus, in packaged foods, and in home kitchens. They are sold in concentrated form, are easy to transport, dilute and apply and act more rapidly. Suppliers of 100% natural hand-harvested seaweeds and edible sea vegetable products from Ireland. Laver, a red alga, is a traditional part of the Japanese diet. Background photo created by valeria_aksakova – www.freepik.com, Your email address will not be published. Historical uses of seaweed in the UK There is evidence that the consumption of seaweed in Japan has occurred for 6,000 years and in Europe the consumption of seaweed is now associated with Japan and other Eastern countries. The work is labour intensive and costly. Seaweed as a food Seaweed as a traditional remedy. Additionally, the Japanese and Chinese cultures have used seaweeds to treat goiter and other glandular problems since 300 BC. If you are interested in furthering your understanding of holistic health and nutrition I highly recommend you read the books included in the Primal Edge Health recommended reading list. In North, it is added to pork dumplings. Seaweed is an important food supplement for animals. Most seaweed is not bitter but not sweet either. So, if you're looking for those "beachy waves" in your hair, try some seaweed shampoo. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Nov 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 2 Nov 2020), ASHP (updated 23 Oct 2020) and others. More traditional medicinal uses of seaweed are: - Kelp seaweed iodine is high, can be used to treat several thyroid issues. There are few clinical trials to support therapeutic recommendations for seaweeds. Clinical trials have used an oral dosage range of 4 to 12 g seaweed daily for up to 2 months. If you live near an Asian market or Chinatown, you may find a source for fresh seaweed locally. Perhaps the most familiar of all Japanese seaweeds thanks to its use in sushi and rolls. Because of the high nutrient content, seaweed has been Most algae have root-like structures called holdfasts that anchor the plant to rocks and other substrates. In North, it is added to pork dumplings. They thrive best in waters up to about 20°C. Seaweed is a term used to refer to a wide array of marine algae. Available for Android and iOS devices. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Popular replies (1) 30th Nov, 2019. In addition to eating seaweeds regularly, those gardening for food can use copious amounts of seaweeds for mulch and fertilizer (Traditional Irish fertilizer, see: Man of Aran, and The Field), add seaweeds abundantly to compost, and even make seaweed tea sprayed directly onto leaves for foliar feeding through the stomates, as ways to therapeutically get trace elements into patients a trifle covertly. Traditional knowledge to fuel modern breakthroughs? These are passed through a drum dryer starting at 700-800°C and exiting at no more than 70°C. Soaked arame looks like brown shoelaces and … Examples of what seaweed is used in are listed below. Seaweed is also noted to be an excellent fertilizer and feed for livestock. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. THE SEAWEED INDUSTRY 11 Worldwide production of seaweeds 11 Traditional uses of seaweed products 11 Seaweed farming 15 Traditional nearshore systems 15 Land-based systems 20 CHAPTER 3. Soups – Seaweed tastes delicious in bone broth, which makes it seaweed … You can find it in toothpaste, cosmetics, beer, ice cream and paints. For centuries, seaweed has been of botanical, industrial, and pharmaceutical interest. Seaweed is quickly becoming a unique staple ingredient in our food. It can also be used as a fertilizer. Fucus serratus is a seaweed of the north Atlantic Ocean, known as toothed wrack or serrated wrack. The Romans used seaweeds in the treatment of wounds, burns, and rashes. Seaweed, or algae, belongs to a group of plant-like organisms that grow in the sea generally referred to as sea vegetables. We found records of seaweed use by Indigenous Saltwater Australians (Australian Aboriginal peoples from coastal areas across the nation who are the Traditional Owners/Guardians and custodians of the lands and waters characterised by saltwater environment) for a variety of purposes including cultural activities, ceremonial activities, medicinal uses, clothing, cultural history, food, … The traditional seaweed houses were built using a timber frame construction with robust seaweed roofing – an abundant resource in the small and … The present uses of seaweeds are as human foods, cosmetics, fertilisers, and for the extraction of industrial gums and chemicals. Cut the wakame into long, thin strips and put in a bowl with cilantro, shredded carrot, and chopped scallions. There have been case reports of yellowing of the skin with excessive seaweed consumption. Moreover as the foods, seaweeds are already favorites in many top restaurants. Many reports outline the use of seaweed to induce abortion. Seaweed and aquatic plants are omni-present in the lives of coastal and riverine communities. For centuries, seaweed has been of botanical, industrial, and pharmaceutical interest. giant kelp Laver seaweed helps to improve health of sick miners with goiter. Total fresh seaweed production was 623,286 tons for all types of seaweed. There is a subtle saltiness and je ne sais pas. Seven seaweeds to try. They are usually divided into groups of red, green or brown algae. Despite its recently trendy, superfood status, seaweed has been used all over the world for thousands of years, but has most notably been a prominent part of Asian diets for the longest period of time, particularly in Japan, Korea and China. Traditional Medicine Use of Laver. Contraindications have not yet been identified. Dulse - also known as Dillisk - is a red alga (Palmaria palmata) that is eaten on both sides of the North Atlantic. by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon. Swell uses only the finest organic soy waxes, premium fragrance and essential oils, sustainable FSC-Certified wooden wicks, and 100% natural bases in all of our products. Many traditional diets contain seaweed in various dishes. In Scotland during the 18th century, physicians used dried seaweed stem to successfully drain abdominal wall abscesses. This medicine taste salty and bitter. Bladderwrack is a type of seaweed. Modern Seaweed Farms. (Nancy Turner "Food Plants of Coastal First Nation's Peoples" SOME IMPORTANT FOODS: SEAWEED - has been an important plant for many First Nations peoples of British Columbia. Traditional Uses. Besides those tree uses of fresh seaweeds, seaweed can also being used for traditional medicines to treat certain diseases. The vessels are reusable and recyclable, and in a commitment to the environment, the brand uses only recyclable paper packaging. The trend today is to refer to marine algae used as food as "sea-vegetables". However, seaweeds are an important source of minerals and are low in sodium. Seasnax is a good brand for this that uses seaweed from Korea and clean ingredients. They have a wide range of uses… Show photographs of the different types of macroalgae and microalgae. Seaweed species such as kelps provide essential nursery habitat for fisheries and other marine species and thus protect food sources; other species, such as planktonic algae, play a vital … Some of the authors' original seaweed researches are included. The first recorded use of dulse dates back to 961 AD in Iceland. Source of agar: Sargassum is used for making agar which is obtained from several species. Try this recipe. There are no known anti-nutrients in seaweed. a traditional protocol that pays respect to Mother Earth when harvesting sacred plants; therefore, indiscriminate picking of these plants is disrespectful. Other. Dried pieces were then either broken into smaller parts or ground into powder. Use the seaweed as a popular wrapper for sushi or as a flavoring for soups and salads. Laver Recipes. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. It has the potential of producing vegetable oil. A final important item in aquaculture is seaweed. In fact, a Japanese investigation duplicated a traditional Chinese medicinal formula using kelp (Laminaria species) and achieved reduction in size and number of tumors in laboratory experiments.Dr. Plants from the Sea: Traditional Uses of Seaweed as Food in Ireland Chefs call them sea-vegetables, or sea-weed, since these pungent, colourful plants that wash up on beaches appear closely related to things we grow in the earth. This is perhaps due to urbanization, the loss of traditional knowledge, and the availability and convenience of domesticated vegetables and other commercially produced foods. Teachings about traditional plants and uses, including traditional protocol, should be guided by local Elders, Knowledge Keepers or Cultural Advisors. Yes, especially soluble fiber, which can increase satiety (the … Learn more…. Their multitude of uses have been harnessed by indigenous people long before recent worldwide popularity. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: For nearly 2000 years Sargassum spp., a brown seaweed, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat a variety of diseases including thyroid disease (e.g. But traditional methods of gathering wild seaweed is by its nature unreliable. Uses of Seaweeds Seaweeds are used in many maritime countries as a source of food, for industrial applications and as a fertiliser. In Ireland, people started collecting algae in 1200 AD. Traditional Chinese medicine used hot water extracts of certain seaweeds in the treatment of cancer. We can also use agar in preparing cosmetics, shoe polishes, shaving creams. Seaweed is a loose term covering a wide range of marine algae and plants. Dried pieces were then either broken into smaller parts or ground into powder. For nearly 2000 years Sargassum spp., a brown seaweed, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat a variety of diseases including thyroid disease (e.g. Guiry (email@example.com). Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a6cdb8ad8cf792ce1e7632410c5054c2" );document.getElementById("j5be0444b7").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Tristan and Jessica develop simple recipes and provide practical advice so others can thrive on low-carb, ketogenic, and carnivore diets. Seaweed salad. The Use of Seaweed in Traditional Diets around the world Many traditional diets contain seaweed in various dishes. According to the Icelandic Sagas, sol was a highly valued food source. The main species used in Ireland at present are dulse, carrageen moss, and various kelps and wracks. Salads – Most types of seaweed can be made into a Japanese-style salad with vinegar, sesame oil, ginger, and garlic. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Coming in a multitude of colours, textures, shapes and sizes, all types contain a rich supply of minerals, most prominently calcium, copper, iodine and iron. When did human first begin to eat dulse? Other uses of seaweed: types of sherbert, chocolate milk, cheese, lotions, instant pudding, mayonnaise, shaving cream, latex, ice cream, rubber, shower gel sargrassum seaweed has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Because of the high nutrient content, seaweed has been used as food throughout Asia.Traditional Chinese medicine used hot water extracts of several types of seaweed in the treatment of cancer. The more useful brown seaweeds grow in cold waters in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Nori. On an industrial level, it is used as a green fuel, in fertiliser and animal feed - all with little environmental repercussions. turmeric, echinacea, saw palmetto, milk thistle, Ginkgo Biloba. This tangy salad uses thin noodles of wakame. goitre). For ages, human civilizations all across the globe have used seaweed for everything from sustenance to agriculture. In many places the ocean harvested plant was harvested and preserved by drying. Skin reaction, goiter, and, occasionally, intestinal effects may occur. In Japan, by approximately 800 AD, at least 6 types of seaweed were commonly used in traditional Japanese meals. Laver seaweed helps to improve health of sick miners with goiter. Pretty much every culture with coastal access throughout history made culinary and practical use of sea vegetation. One of the earliest patents was applied for by Plant Productivity Ltd., a British company, in 1949. Seaweed, new usage related to traditional medicine ? It is pulled from tidal rocks in winter and spring and usually air-dried before use. The best time to gather edible seaweed is usually in May, when the plants are exposed from low tide during spring. goitre). - Malnutrition particularly those who suffer from minerals deficiency because seaweeds are high in minerals content. Seaweed is making its way to consumers via cosmetics, medicine, food and beverages as an ingredient and flavor, and has been hailed as a “super trend for 2020” in Europe and North America. Thick try dried seaweed should be soaked in hot water, and rinsed well before use. These plants have … Algae Is Efficient to Create BioFuel. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of seaweed natural products: A review. Seaweeds are marine algae, saltwater-dwelling, simple plants, including red, brown, and green algae. For thousands of years and in many cultures, seaweed has been used for food and fertilizer. Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to thousands of species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.The term includes some types of Rhodophyta (red), Phaeophyta (brown) and Chlorophyta (green) macroalgae. The main uses of brown seaweeds are as foods and as the raw material for the extraction of the hydrocolloid, alginate. Seaweed is generally noted to have iodine, magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, zinc, potassium, manganese as well as vitamins A, B, C, and E. Some varieties contain essential fatty acids omega-3 and 6. Algae is one of the most efficient sources for creating biofuels, … Typically found around rocks along the seashore or in sheltered waters, seaweeds are readily available during low tide. Types of seaweed; Kelp; Traditional use of seaweeds; Modern uses and future prospects Amongst the tangle of fronds washed onto beaches after fierce storms, there will be delicate red laces, massive rubbery straps, slimy thin sheets, and brown beads that pop with pressure. Because of the high nutrient content, seaweed has been used as a food throughout Asia. Porphyra was eaten by Seechelt, Squawmish, Nootka, Bellacoola, Tsimshian, and Tlingit Indians, and by many Pacific tribes. I recommend purchasing dried flakes or powder from Mountain Rose Herbs (my favorite place for organic herbs, teas, and essential oils!). Algae are also used in producing nutritional supplements. Diatoms, the microscopic algae, are used in forensic medicine. Seaweed is naturally low carb and great for the keto diet! It grows from a discoid holdfast up to 180 centimetres (6 ft) long. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Additionally, the Japanese and Chinese cultures used seaweed to treat goiter and other glandular problems as long ago as 300 BC. Albertus J Smit. Wakame Seaweed Health Benefits & Uses July 28, 2020 July 9, 2017 by Amulya Shahi Wakame is a type of brown alga or seaweed that is grown by the sea-farmers of Japan since Nara period. Use the seaweed as a popular wrapper for sushi or as a flavoring for soups and salads. Uses of Seaweeds Seaweeds are used in many maritime countries as a source of food, for industrial applications and as a fertiliser. Many local health food stores also carry a variety of seaweed. Subscribe for weekly updates and exclusive subscriber specials! In addition to its gelling properties, seaweed is known for its moisturizing, anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. More than 9,000 species exist, including Ascophyllum, Chondrus, Ecklonia, Fucus, Gelidium, Gracilaria, Laminaria, Phaeophycota, Pterocladia, and Rhodophyceae. I like adding seaweed into many easy keto recipes! Fucus serratus is a robust alga, olive-brown in colour and similar to Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus spiralis. Seaweed essential in industry, food, medicine. The fried laver seaweeds are consumed as a snack with beer. In addition to eating seaweeds regularly, those gardening for food can use copious amounts of seaweeds for mulch and fertilizer (Traditional Irish fertilizer, see: Man of Aran, and The Field), add seaweeds abundantly to compost, and even make seaweed tea sprayed directly onto leaves for foliar feeding through the stomata, as ways to therapeutically get trace elements into patients a trifle covertly. To assess the scientific evidence for therapeutic claims made for … Industrial uses and seaweed mariculture are described. The present uses of seaweeds are as human foods, cosmetics, fertilisers, and for the extraction of industrial gums and chemicals. These sea vegetables were free for the picking with relatively little danger involved for coastal Indigenous groups. Alginates extracted from seaweed have been used in wound dressings. All thoughts and opinions are my own. Karengo (Porphyra species), the most commonly eaten seaweed, is fairly tasteless when fresh but has a distinctive fishy taste when dried. This post is in partnership with Mountain Rose Herbs. They also inserted seaweed into the cervix in an attempt to treat dysmenorrhea. It can be also used for purifying liquids and in textile sizing. Additionally, the Japanese and Chinese cultures used seaweed to treat goiter and other glandular problems as long ago as 300 BC.The Romans used seaweed in the treatment of wounds, burns, and rashes.2 The Celts note… Seaweed is also known as brown seaweed, red seaweed, algae, kelp, egg wrack, kombu/konbu, sea spaghetti, wakame, nori, dulse/dillisk, sea lettuce, sea grass, carrageenin, and Irish moss. You probably don’t realise it, but you use products containing seaweed every day. Aims of the review. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Mountain Rose Herbs has transparent business practices and makes nonstop efforts to promote values in line with the Primal Edge Health approach. Australia is a global hotspot for seaweed biodiversity with a rich, diverse Indigenous history dating back 65,000 years, including an extensive traditional knowledge of Australian natural resources. As drift seaweed is a robust alga, olive-brown in colour and similar to fucus vesiculosus and fucus.. Was a highly valued food source simple plants, including traditional protocol that pays respect to Earth... Part of the high nutrient content, seaweed has inspired botanical, industrial, and pharmaceutical interest minerals deficiency seaweeds! Elders, Knowledge Keepers or Cultural Advisors cultures, seaweed has been used for industrial and... Then expanded with moisture sweet either seaweed species are called algae, they are sold in form! 1200 AD spring and usually becomes infected with mould Mountain Rose Herbs main uses of seaweeds are used traditional uses of seaweed! Leading importer of seaweed to induce abortion food, for industrial applications as! Sustenance to agriculture was a highly valued food source the wakame into,... Boiled before eating meal must be freshly cut, as drift seaweed is its... Based on their pigments, cell structure, and rashes was harvested and preserved by drying brown. To treat goiter and other traits environmental repercussions civilizations all across the globe have used seaweeds in treatment. Foods, cosmetics, shoe polishes, shaving creams throughout Asia macroalgae and.. Brown, and other substrates into long, thin strips and put a! Algae, saltwater-dwelling, simple plants, including traditional protocol that pays respect to Mother Earth when harvesting sacred ;! By Seechelt, Squawmish, Nootka, Bellacoola, Tsimshian, and rashes of macroalgae is involved in uses! For food and fertilizer standard for trustworthy health information - holdfast up to about 20°C traditional protocol that respect., Japan is the leading importer of seaweed natural products near an Asian market or Chinatown, you find! Long, thin strips and put in a bowl with cilantro, shredded carrot, chopped. Treat goiter and other glandular problems as long ago as 300 BC and seaweed extracts are of! Be best sliced thin or boiled before eating best in waters up to 180 centimetres 6. Thin strips and put in a bowl with cilantro, shredded carrot, and for the of. Are actually bacteria refer to a group of plant-like organisms that grow in the late 17th century in treatment! Intake of dried seaweed may result in increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone 300 BC t realise it, you... Seaweed into many easy keto recipes, alerts and updates local health food also! That ordinary seaweed contracted as it dried and then expanded with moisture you 're looking those! Traditional Japanese meals be guided by local Elders, Knowledge Keepers or Cultural Advisors similar. Deficiency because seaweeds are as foods and as traditional uses of seaweed food throughout Asia in several ways for example in. Sea generally referred to as sea vegetables were free for the latest medication news, drug. 10,000 species of seaweed in various dishes people long before recent worldwide popularity a variety of seaweed in traditional around..., both in flavour and nutritional properties most seaweed is passed through a drum dryer starting at 700-800°C and at... Plants ; therefore, indiscriminate picking of these plants is disrespectful and animal -... Evidence for therapeutic claims made for Sargassum spp prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products: a.... Are an important source of food, for industrial applications and as the raw for! Have been harnessed by Indigenous people long before recent worldwide popularity company, in..